Your guide to installing Smoothieboard in a 3D printer

Probably the machine for which Smoothie is most used, due to Smoothie's roots in the RepRap project, 3D printers are fairly simple to Smoothiefy.

This is a step-by-step guide to connecting your board to the various components of the 3D printer, configuring everything, from the beginning to actual printing.

This guide is a community effort, and this page is a Wiki. Please don't hesitate to edit it to fix mistakes and add information, any help is very welcome.

On a typical 3D printer setup, installing a Smoothieboard will mean you do the following things :

  • Read all of the guide before you start, best way to avoid mistakes
  • Install some Software to talk to your board
  • Install the Windows drivers if using that OS
  • Connect your board via USB and practice talking to it
  • Take a look at the configuration
  • Upgrade your firmware to the latest version if you feel like it
  • Wire your power supply and provide it with power
  • Wire the power supply to Smoothieboard's motor and mosfet power inputs
  • Connect motors to the stepper motor driver outputs
  • Edit your configuration to match your motors
  • Test the motors, and admire your accomplishment for hours
  • Connect Endstops to the endstop inputs
  • Edit your configuration to match your endstops
  • Test your endstops by homing the machine
  • Connect your hotend and heated bed's thermistors to the thermistor inputs
  • Edit your configuration to match your thermistors
  • Test that they read temperature correctly, admire a beautiful temperature graph
  • Connect your hotend and heated bed's heaters to the mosfet outputs
  • Edit your configuration to tell Smoothie what to heat, with what mosfet and how
  • Test that you can correctly control temperature on all heaters, carefully
  • Connect, configure and test any fans you may have
  • Connect, configure and test any probes you may have
  • Setup calibration or leveling if relevant
  • Configure your slicing software and slice a 3D file into a G-code file
  • Use your host software to send your new G-code file to the Smoothieboard
  • Watch as the machine prints using your new Smoothieboard system
  • Be happy

This guide will walk through everything you need to accomplish to successfully perform these steps.

At the end of this guide, you should have a fully working machine.


Some users have hand-translated this page. Note that this translated version is by definition never going to be up-to-date. Use it to help you understand in general, but any specific information should be taken from the original version, especially before asking the community for help.

USB Connectors

Smoothie uses USB-B

Your Smoothieboard comes with a micro sd-card in the microSD slot.

The boards come pre-flashed. With a basic configuration file installed on the SD card, no preparation is needed before you can connect Smoothieboard to your computer and start interacting with it.

The first thing you might want to do before you start connecting your board, is to look at our list of Software, and install a “host” program to talk to the board.

Don't have a Smoothieboard ?

If you don't have a Smoothieboard but have or consider purchasing a MKS board, please make sure you read What's wrong with MKS

A good first step is to connect your board to your computer to familiarize yourself with it. Connect a USB-B cable to the USB connector on the board, and to your computer.

SD card

Files on your Smoothieboard's SD card

A moment after connection, your computer will recognize the Smoothieboard as a USB Mass Storage Device (like a USB disk-drive or a SD card reader), showing you the files present on the SD card. Drivers are needed for Windows 7/8, while Linux and Mac OS X directly support the device, you can find those drivers here.

This allows you to add, copy, edit or delete any file you'd like. Already present on the SD card is a file named “config”. This file contains all of the configuration options for your board and is read when you start or reset your board. You edit the configuration simply by editing this file in a Text Editor, saving it and resetting the board. No need to recompile or flash the board.

More on configuration

You can read more about configuring your Smoothieboard at Configuring Smoothie

SD card

The SD card can also be used to flash a more recent version of the firmware to your board, while the pre-flashed firmware should work this is not always the case, see where to get the binary file and how to flash it via the SD card.

It can also be used to store and play G-Code files, see Player.

USB Mass Storage is not the only thing you get when you connect the board. The board also exposes a USB CDC Serial interface, allowing you to send G-Code and receive answers. (There is also a DFU interface for flashing firmwares but that's mostly for developers).

The CDC (Serial) interface is the interface host programs like Pronterface use to allow you to interact with your machine. If you are already familiar with it, you can try connecting right now and get an answer from the board. If not, we explain it all later in this guide.


Hope you have less cables than this

The other main communication interface present on the Smoothieboard, apart from the USB port, is the Ethernet port, which allows you to connect your board to your local Ethernet network, and talk to the board via TCP/IP.

This is the same kind of technology you would find on a network-connected 2D printer for example.

It allows you to access a web interface the board serves, and control the machine via your browser.

It also allows you to connect some software that supports it ( like Pronterface and Visicut ) to your Smoothieboard via the network.

Network is disabled by default, but is very easy to enable and configure.

It is also the recommended main method of communicating with your Smoothieboard.

You can find all the information you need about using the network interface here : Network interface

Now that you have your board, a very good idea before starting is to update your firmware to the latest version.

You do this by downloading the latest Firmware.bin file, copying it onto the SD card, and resetting the SmoothieBoard.

Then, the new firmware will “flash” ( you will see the LEDs on the board do a little “dance” ), and you will then have the latest version.

This is particularly useful if you ever need to ask for help, as people helping you will be assuming you have the latest version.

You can find the file, and information on how to flash it, at Flashing Smoothie Firmware.

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If you are migrating from another firmware, here are guides to help you understand how some values from your old firmware match the values in your new Smoothie system :

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Before you start wiring your machine's elements to the board, there are several things you need to keep in mind and be careful about during all of the assembly.

Make sure you read this. Seriously. Not kidding. Do it. It's important.


Power connections

Note the inversion between the 5mm and 3.5mm connectors

Always make sure the polarity is correct when wiring in power inputs (coming from the Power Supply). Reversed polarity can damage or destroy all or part of your board. Polarity is indicated on the board itself by the + and - signs. Double check. On older versions of the board, markings are partially hidden by the connector, making it confusing. Rely on only the diagrams.

To check the polarity of your power source, attach your multimeter probes to the two wires of your power source respectively. If the voltmeter reading is positive it implies that the red probe is connected to the positive wire (+) and the black probe to the negative wire (-).

The main (labeled VBB) power input has a reverse polarity protection, however, it will not hold forever. As soon as you notice something is wrong, turn the power supply off and check again.


Never disconnect or connect stepper motors from the stepper motor drivers while the board is powered (i.e., when the Power Supply is turned on).

The drivers have very good protection against most possible problems and are very hard to destroy accidentally. But it is possible.


Be careful that nothing metallic ever touches the board while it is powered on. Falling screwdrivers, nuts and bolts can cause shorts and destroy the board. Check the board before powering it on. Do not press the reset button with anything metallic, as you could slip and cause a short, use a plastic screwdriver or the like.

Use the right connector

Always check the schematic before connecting power sources (coming from the Power Supply) to the board. Connected to the wrong connector can destroy components. A common example of this problem is plugging a power input cable, into the connector for an output, or plugging the limit switches in backwards.


Make absolutely sure of your connections using crimps or screw terminals, from wires to any type of connector, are very careful and well done. Connections (to the stepper motors for example) lost while the machine is running can destroy your board.


In the case of the VBB power input, be careful. If your board came with connectors pre-soldered, the 5mm connector is present, and the polarity of that connector is that of the large traces in the wiring diagram to the right (red is +, blue is -). On some boards, the marking on the boards may be hidden by the connector itself, so for VBB, do not rely on the markings on the board, but on the diagrams on this page. However, if you did not get your connectors soldered, and want to solder a 3.5mm connector instead of a 5mm connector, also note that the polarity is the opposite.

USB v Ethernet

USB can, in some setups, be subject to interference, which causes disconnections, and can ruin your work. This is very hard to prevent if it happens even in normal conditions. Ethernet, on the other hand, does not have this problem: save yourself the trouble, and use Ethernet right away. It's very nice. See Network for information on how to set it up.

Destroying your board

If you receive a bad board, you will get a replacement. But if you destroy your own board, your only options will be to fix it yourself (which can be quite difficult), or get a new one.

This is why it is very important you make sure you do not destroy your own board. Smoothieboard is reasonably protected, but there are still things that will destroy it. The general idea is: if a part of the board gets too much power, it will get destroyed. Here are some common mistake users do that cause the board to get too much power and die:

  • Plugging 12-24v (motor power) into anything you are not supposed to. Like the 5V line, or an end-stop or thermistor input for example. Problems with the 5V or 3.3V power are not as much of a problem as the board is 5V-tolerant, so wrong connections and shorts should be okay as long as they do not last too long.
  • Shorting 12-24v to anything else, which is essentially the same as plugging it into a place you are not supposed to (see above). This can happen by dropping a metal object onto the board, bad soldering, loose wires, un-protected wires, etc …
  • Using an inductive load (like a motor, fan or solenoid) on a MOSFET, without a diode across (see Fan documentation).

The general idea here is: always make sure everything is clean, and double-check everything before turning the power on. You can not learn by making mistakes here, as mistakes will likely cost you your board.

Electrostatic discharge can also destroy your board : make sure you properly ground everything.

Heater safety

If your machine contains any heating element and uses the temperature control module to control it, please make sure you read the section about implementing all safety measures here, and implement as many as you can. Fires will kill you if you don't.


Make sure your machine's case and electronics are properly grounded, also make sure your location's electrical installation's grounding is correctly done.

See for example :

Environmental hazards

Be aware of your environment : it's not just the machine itself.

  • On a laser cutter, the machine vents large quantities of toxic smoke and gas, make sure it is very well evacuated to a place where no-one is breathing them
  • On a CNC-mill, dusts, like wood dust for example, can be explosive if they come in contact with a flame, be careful and take measures to limit dust in the air
  • On a 3D printer, the acetone used to clean things is very flammable, and the sprays used to increase bed adherence are explosive, store them adequately and be careful when using them

In particular, you are even more in danger if you are using your machine in a confined space, always be on the watch for safety issues.

For a good read about safety, you can refer to the RepRap Wiki documentation on the subject

To properly understand some of the safety instructions in this documentation, basic knowledge about electricity is required. See this page for a refresher on the basics.

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Logic power inputs

There are different ways of providing logic power to your board

Your board needs two sorts of power to work : 12-24V power to turn motors, heat hotends, etc, and 5V ( or “logic” ) power to power the microcontroller ( the brain ).

There are three ways to provide 5V power to the board :

  • By plugging a USB cable in, USB cables provide 5V
  • By soldering a voltageregulator to the board ( and providing 12+24V, which the voltage regulator then turns into 5V )
  • By providing 5V directly to the 5V power input ( next to the VBB power input )

If you want to keep it simple, the easiest solution is just to connect your Smoothieboard to your computer via USB.

Note you can connect several different power supplies at the same time, with no issue at all, Smoothieboard has diodes on-board that will simply get the power from the one with the highest voltage, meaning you can even turn one off and the other will be used without a reset.

If voltage and current are strange concepts to you, it's probably a good idea before you continue setting up your board, that you read this introduction.

The board's logic circuits ( 5V line ) typically consumes up to 500mA current ( what is standard for a USB port ).

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A power supply

Be careful, mains voltage is dangerous

Main Power Input

Without power, your board can not do much. The board uses power to operate the control logic and to move stepper motors, and power heating elements, fans, and others.

How to choose a power supply unit (PSU): two power supplies are required, 5.0V and 'bulk' power (VBB).

5.0V supply

  • Voltage (V) : The 5.0V supply should be regulated to 5% tolerance (4.75V to 5.25V). This supply provides power for the control logic circuitry, and should be a good quality regulated power supply (which is inexpensive).
    • Using a cheap buck regulator from a higher voltage is not recommended, as ever exceeding 5.5V on this supply may instantly and permanently damage the control logic on your Smoothieboard.
  • Current (A): The 5.0V supply should be rated to supply at 1A continuous current (or more). Typical load is roughly 0.5A.

VBB supply

  • Voltage (V) : VBB can be from 12 to 24V. While most of the components on the Smoothieboard are rated up to 32V, it is not recommended or supported to use that high of a voltage. 12V PSUs are more common, and generally cheaper. However, the higher the voltage, the higher performance you can get from your stepper motors. This is the reason some designers use 24V PSUs. However, be careful that with a 24V PSU, you will need 24V fans, and will need to reduce the PWM setting for your heating elements or (preferred, and safer) use 24V heating elements.
  • Current (A): The total current required is the current for each stepper motor, plus the current for every peripheral on your machine Smoothieboard will control. This depends on your machine type.
    • On a typical 3D printer, you can safely consider 10A to be sufficient for the heated bed, and 10A or a bit less for the rest of the loads.
    • Go for a 17 to 20A PSU if you have a heated bed.
    • 7A to 10 is probably enough if you do not have a heated bed (or if you are setting up a CNC mill or a laser cutter).
    • If you bought your machine as a kit, a PSU with appropriate current is most probably provided (or one is recommended).
    • If building your machine yourself by self-sourcing, the documentation for the machine model will also most probably recommend a current rating. A power supply that is able to supply more current than is needed is not a problem. Having not enough current to drive your hot-end, heater bed, or motors is a problem.
  • Some off-brand power supplies can have ratings that exceed their actual power capability (motive: writing a bigger number increases the selling price), may not be UL or CE rated (if it starts a fire, insurance may not cover the loss), or may be perfectly fine. A low selling price means cost was squeezed out of the design somehow; best to understand how.
  • Power supplies are not 100% efficient, and generate heat. Heat shortens electronics life. If they contain a cooling fan, make sure the inlet(s) and outlet(s) air flow is unrestricted. Arrange the inlet to be protected from dropped items and bits of filament; preferably off the floor or desk to not suck in dust.

General Notes

  • Multiple-output power supplies are available. In some cases, a minimum load must be applied to the primary output before the secondary output will be regulated to within tolerances. For example, a dual 5.0V and 12V supply might regulate the 5.0V well at no-load conditions, but the 12V output may be low until power is drawn from the 5.0V supply.

EMI Filtering

  • Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) : Digital logic and power circuitry (such as stepper motor drivers) switches currents and voltages on and off very rapidly. This produces EMI proportional to the voltage, current and rate of switching. EMI can be radiated (as radio waves) and / or conducted through the power line cord or other connections. EMI can interfere with (produce noise in or prevent proper operation of) other equipment, including sensors and motion encoder modules. To reduce these effects, an EMI filter module may be added to help reduce the conducted emissions.
    • An EMI filter module may not strictly be needed, however it is often simpler to take protective measures from the start rather than e.g. searching for the cause of strange, intermittent behavior or coming back to failed 3D prints for months – and then put in an EMI filter module.

A typical US AC wall outlet provides 110V to 120V and is protected by a fuse or circuit breaker with a 15A or 20A rating. As (for example) a motor load such as a refrigerator or saw briefly draws a much higher starting current, in order to avoid 'nuisance trips' a 20A rating does not instantly remove power when that load is exceeded.

A VBB power supply rated (for example) 12V at 10A can provide up to 12V x 10A = 120W (Watts) of DC power. Power supplies are not 100% efficient, thus it will require 5% to 30% more than 120W of input power to produce 120W of output power. It is usually safe to assume at least 70% efficiency at full load (higher for more modern supplies), so the power supply will only need perhaps 1.5A at 120VAC input. A 1A, 5V supply will require much less than 1A at 120VAC input.

While the equipment can only use perhaps 2.5A, the AC wall outlet will provide at least 15A to 20A continuously without tripping the circuit breaker or blowing the fuse. It would be possible (though rare) for a fault condition that drew for example 10A at 120V = 1200W to occur, which would be a fire hazard, without tripping the breaker. If you wish to address this possibility, adding an additional fuse and/or circuit breaker with (for example) a 3A rating in line with the AC 'hot' wire will ensure that if there is a lot of excess power being drawn due to a circuit failure, then this fuse will blow or circuit breaker trip, and power will be removed. Too low a fuse or circuit breaker rating will result in 'nuisance' trips.

Make sure you use a Regulated Power Supply, make sure you connect the ground wire for the mains to the power supply, and if it has a fan, make sure it has sufficient space around it to let air flow and cool it appropriately.

To wire the power supply unit to mains (wall AC power), make sure you connect the right colored wires to the right connectors on the PSU. The 3 connectors are “live”, “neutral” and “ground”. Color changes from cable to cable. You can find charts for your specific country/cable on the internet, but the following colors are the most common:

Standard Load/live color Neutral color Earth color
US Black White Green
Europe Brown Light blue Yellow/Green

Once the wires connected to the PSU, make sure none of your computers is doing something important (like a system upgrade). In case something goes wrong, plug the PSU into a power strip with an on/off button. Then turn that button ON. If your house loses power, you did something wrong. If an LED illuminates on the PSU, everything is fine: unplug the PSU and continue.

If you are new to wiring, please check our how to wire guide.

Don't die

NEVER manipulate mains (220/110V) power wires while they are plugged into the wall plug. Unpleasantness and/or death are common consequences of not respecting this rule.

Ground your printer's frame by connecting it to the Earth terminal on your power supply. In the (unlikely) event that a power supply wire comes undone and touches the printer's frame, this will prevent you from getting an unpleasant and/or deadly shock.

Now that the PSU is getting mains power, your PSU is converting it into 12V or 24V DC (Direct Current) power. You need to connect wires from it to the Smoothieboard to provide power.

The most important thing for DC is to respect polarity : + goes to +, - goes to -. On the PSU, + terminals are indicated as +, V+, 12V+ or 24V+. Ground (-) terminals are indicated as -, V-, COM or GND.

On the Smoothieboard they are indicated simply as + and -.

By convention, black (sometimes brown) wires are used for ground, and red (sometimes orange, white or yellow) wires are used for power connections.

You may want to turn on the power supplies and test the output voltages before connecting them to the Smoothieboard (and turn them back off before connecting).

Once the wires are correctly connected, you can turn the PSU ON. If everything was done correctly, the red LED (marked VBB) on the Smoothieboard will light up brightly.

Be careful

If the VBB LED does not light up, immediately turn the PSU off.

Check polarity, and check all the connections are strong and properly done.

When you turn the PSU on, make sure you are ready to immediately turn it back off.

Now that the board has power, you can use that power to move things!

It is recommended you setup an emergency stop button on your machine, so that in case of a problem, you can easily and quickly turn the machine off. For information on how to do this, please read EmergencyStop.

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A bit of theory :

« A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless DC electric motor that divides a full rotation of the motor into a number of equal steps. The motor's position can then be commanded to move and hold at one of these steps without any feedback sensor (an open-loop controller). » (Wikipedia)

Because they work by steps, and you can accurately control how many steps you move in each direction, stepper motors are a very practical way of moving things to a desired position. This makes them great for most CNC applications.

Smoothie comes with stepper motor drivers designed for bipolar stepper motors, with a maximum current rating of 2 Amps.

Choosing stepper motors

There is a very wide variety of stepper motors around. Bigger motors are generally more powerful. For a given size, motors will have different torques, max speeds, and different capacities to maintain torque as speed increases.

It is important you choose the right motor for your application. The most common mistake is to choose a high inductance motor. There are two main “families” of motors out there : high inductance motors are mostly designed for maintaining position and moving rarely ( like on a telescope mount ), and low inductance motors are designed for moving often, and at high speeds ( like on a CNC mill or 3D printer ).

If you use a high inductance stepper motor with a Smoothieboard ( or any “CNC” stepper motor driver ), not only will you get bad speed/torque performance, but when moving the stepper motor ( or axis ) by hand, very high voltage will be generated, which can destroy your stepper motor driver.

You can recognize a “high inductance” stepper motor by the fact that it's rated inductance is high, in general higher than 10mH is bad. If your motor doesn't tell you it's inductance, rated voltage is also an indication : high inductance stepper motors usually have high rated voltages, a typical value being 12V, where “CNC” steppers have voltage bellow 5V. This is not what you want, you want a low inductance stepper motor, with an inductance ideally bellow 10mH, and a rated voltage ideally bellow 5V

The reprap community defines a good stepper motor like this :

Ideal stepper is (for reprap printers and similar small CNC using microstepping drivers on 12-24v supply) NEMA17 size, rated 1.5A to 1.8A or less, 1-4ohm winding resistance, 3 to 8 mH, (0.44Nm, or more of torque, 1.8 or 0.9 degrees per step (200/400 steps/rev respectively), for example the kysan 1124090/42BYGH4803 or the rattm 17HS8401 or Wantai

Stepper motor wiring

Be careful you get the coils right


Direct wiring

Bipolar stepper motors have two poles (bi-polar). Each pole is connected to two wires. That's 4 wires coming out of your stepper motor. These have to be connected to your Smoothieboard.

Each stepper motor driver on the Smoothieboard has 4 connections to that effect. (Stepper motor drivers are labeled M1, M2 etc …)

The tricky thing is often to find out which wires connect to which poles. If you just wire things at random, you have a chance it will work, but let's be scientific about it. Several methods:

  • Documentation: Look at your motor, find its part number. Then google it. If you are lucky, you will find a schematic or a data-sheet that will indicate which wire goes to which pole. Note the colours that correspond to each coil.
  • Fingers: When the two wires for a given pole touch together, a closed circuit for that pole is created. This makes the stepper motor more difficult to turn. You can use that effect to discover the poles. Turn the stepper motor shaft, it should turn freely. Now take two wires, and make them touch. Turn the shaft again. If it shows resistance, is harder to turn, you found a pole. If it doesn't, keep one wire, and try another one for the second one. Do this until you find a combination that shows resistance. Once you find the two wires for a given coil, the other two wires are simply the other coil. Note the colours that correspond to each coil.
  • Multimeter: Configure your multimeter to read resistance. Then the method is the same as the previous one, take two wires at random, test them, except you know you find a coil when you measure electrical resistance between two wires. If you measure no contact, try another wire combination. Note the colours that correspond to each coil.

Now to connect the wires to the Smoothieboard. Let's call one coil A, and the other coil B. It doesn't matter which is which. Polarity also doesn't matter, all it changes is the direction the motor turns, and you can change that in the configuration file. Now simply connect your two wires to the Smoothieboard's 4 pins for that stepper motor driver as such : AABB or BBAA. Other combinations like ABBA or ABAB will not work.

How to properly connect stepper motors

If you don't get it right, it won't work properly

Once your stepper motor is properly connected to your Smoothieboard, it is ready to be controlled.

Wiring a stepper motor to a stepper motor driver.

In this example, a stepper motor is connected to the M1 driver, and power is provided to VBB ( the main power input ).

External Stepper driver

If you want to use larger stepper motors than the Smoothieboard's drivers can handle ( 2A max ), you need to use external stepper drivers.

You can find detailed information on how to wire an external stepper motor driver to a Smoothieboard in the External driver appendix.

Stepper motor

They often have useful information on them


Example configurations are available in github

You can also refer to the Configuration documentation.


The first thing you have to do is tell the stepper motor drivers what is the current rating for your stepper motors is. To drive the stepper motor correctly, the driver has to know the motor's current rating.

Each stepper motor model has a precise current rating. You can drive your stepper motor at a lower current, which will make it more silent, but also less powerful. But you can not drive the motor at a higher current than it is rated at. This would cause overheating, and possibly skipped steps.

The rating is often written on your stepper motor's label ( see picture on the right ). If it is not, you can get it by googling the stepper motor model number, or by contacting your seller or manufacturer.

Once you have the correct rating, you can set the corresponding parametr in the configuration file.

Smoothie has a funny way of naming stepper motor drivers. Instead of naming them X, Y or Z, because this makes no sense in non-cartesian robots like delta robots, we name the drivers using Greek letters so they are arm application agnostic :

Label on the Smoothieboard M1 M2 M3 M4 M5
Axis in a Cartesian machine X (left-right) Y (front-back) Z (up-down) E0 : First extruder E1 : Second extruder
Greek letter α (alpha) β (beta) γ (gamma) δ (delta) ε (epsilon)
Current setting configuration option alpha_current beta_current gamma_current delta_current epsilon_current

Now, as described in the “Unboxing” paragraph, connect the board to your computer, open the “config” file with a text editor, and change the configuration value for each stepper motor driver to the correct value.

For example, if your alpha stepper motor has a current rating of 1.68A, edit the corresponding line to read :

alpha_current                                1.68             # X stepper motor current

Do this for each stepper motor you have to connect to the board. (If you have a Cartesian robot, see which motor connects to which stepper driver in the array above. If you use another type of arm solution, see the specific documentation.)

A stepper motor

Steps per millimeter

A stepper motor driver operates in steps. It moves a certain number of steps in one direction, then a certain number of steps in another. You think in millimetres. You want your machine to go to a certain position in millimetres, then another position in millimetres.

You need Smoothieboard to convert the millimetres you ask of it, into steps the stepper motor driver understands.

That conversion depends on your exact arm solution. The most common, and the simplest, is the Cartesian arm solution, and it is the one we will focus on here. Documentation for other arm solutions can be found separately.

In the case of a Cartesian arm solution, you simply convert a certain number of millimeters to a certain numbers of steps. That is the steps_per_millimeter configuration option that you have to set for each stepper motor.

To compute it, you must multiply a certain number of factors.

  • The object you move moves a certain number of millimetres for each rotation of the stepper motor. (This depends on the characteristics of the belt/pulley, or lead-screw system you are using.)
  • The stepper motor moves a certain number of full steps per rotation. That is usually 200. (But it can be 400.)
  • Each step is divided by the stepper motor driver in a certain number of microsteps. It is that number, and not the number of full steps, that we want. Smoothieboard V1.1 always divides steps into 32 microsteps. (16 for older smoothieboards).

The formula is as follows :

steps per millimeter = ( (full steps per rotation)  x (microsteps per step) ) / (millimeters per rotation)

To help you, there is an awesome calculator by the awesome Josef Prusa:

Once you know the correct value for a given stepper motor driver, set it in the config file.:

alpha_steps_per_mm                           80               # Steps per mm for alpha stepper

Do this for each stepper motor driver.

In the case of your extruder stepper motor, the principle is the same, but the value is extruder_steps_per_mm.

Here are two good videos about steps-per-millimeters :



It is now time to test your stepper motors. For this you will need to use host software like Pronterface or the web interface.

Now connect to your Smoothieboard over the serial interface. Power your machine on by plugging the PSU into the wall.

Now you need to move an axis to make sure the stepper motor is turning in the right direction. In Pronterface, click near the yellow arrow marked “+X”.

Your X axis will move. If it moved to the right, great! Everything is fine, and you have nothing to change. If it moved to the left, you need to invert the direction of that axis.

You do this by editing the configuration file, and inverting the direction pin for that stepper motor driver :

alpha_dir_pin                                0.5              # Pin for alpha stepper direction

Becomes :

alpha_dir_pin                                0.5!             # Pin for alpha stepper direction

This is for your axes. In the case of your extruder, the config value is extruder_dir_pin.

Save the config file, reset the Smoothieboard, connect again using Pronterface. Now the axis will move in the right direction.

Do this for each axis.

Moving bed

If you have a moving bed in the Y axis for example, as opposed to a moving tool, be careful : what matters is the direction of the head relative to the bed, not the direction of the bed relative to the machine. It's very common to get confused and invert your Y axis on moving bed machines (or not invert it when it should be). Basically, if an asymmetrical object looks like the model when it is printed, then your Y axis is correct, otherwise you need to change your configuration.

2022/07/17 17:35

On a normal “Cartesian” machine, each actuator ( a motor and a linear rail, named alpha, beta, gamma ) corresponds to an axis ( like X, Y and Z ).

But on other machines, the position in cartesian space ( X, Y, Z ), must be converted, using math, into a more complex position for the actuators.

This is the case for example of linear delta ( often just called “delta” ) machines.

Currently smoothieware supports the following arm/motion solutions :

To configure your machine for the right type, see it's specific page.

2022/07/17 17:35

An extruder

With gears to increase torque

Extruders are used to push plastic filament thru a hotend, to achieve the awesome feat of 3D Printing.

This module controls the motor that pushes the filament, it does not take care of the hotend itself, which is the job of TemperatureControl.

The most important parameter to get your extruder module to work properly, is Extruder.module-name.steps_per_mm.

You can create as many Extruder modules as you want (although you may run out of memory and smoothie will no longer boot), as long as you give them different module names. You can name those modules whatever you want ( as long as you stick to only alphanumerical characters ). NOTE that the default build of Smoothie only supports 2 extruders (5 axis), if you need 3 extruders you need to compile with make AXIS=6


Steps per millimeter

We need to find the number of steps on the stepper motor drivers have to generate in order to move the filament 1 millimeter.

This value depends on your stepper motor, the microstepping on your stepper motor drivers, the gear reduction ratio on the extruder assembly if any and the diameter of your hobbed pulley/bolt.

A very good guide on how to find this value can be found here :

extruder.hotend.steps_per_mm                        140

Filament diameter

This is an optional parameter for those who want to use volumetric extrusion, but are too lazy to do their own math. ;) Simply enter the machine's filament diameter here and set your slicer's filament diameter to 1.128379mm ( 2*sqrt(1/pi) ) and enjoy portable gcode! Further explanation can be found in Triffid_Hunter's guide, linked above.

Details based on current Edge (Master is different)

In the current edge builds, when a filament diameter is specified either from M200 Dxxx or the config setting Smoothie expects all E values specified to be in mm³, so when you click extrude 10mm in Pronterface Smoothie will actually extrude 10mm³. And E values in a gcode file will all be expected to be mm³. Note that when firmware retraction is specified via M207 the retraction length is still in mm not mm³, but will be converted to mm³ based on the filament diameter at the time of extrusion.
In the current master builds, only print moves have E specified in mm³, retract or extrude only moves are still in mm. The change in edge is to be more compliant with other firmwares and user expectations.
extruder.hotend.filament_diameter                   3.0

The filament diameter can also be saved at run time with this M code

M200 Set E units for volumetric extrusion - D<filament diameter> set to 0 to disable volumetric extrusion M200 D3.0

and saved with M500.

Firmware Retract

G10/G11 will cause the filament to retract and unretract, this option can be set in most current slicers.

Note this is optional, you are not obligated to set this up, but it is a nice feature if you want to use it.

The amounts of extrusion and speed can be set with the following M codes

M207 set retract length Smm Fmm/min Zzlift/hop Qfeedrate mm/min M207 S4 F30 Z1
M208 set retract recover length Smm surplus to the M207 S* Fmm/min M208 S0 F8

or can be set in config with the following settings…

extruder.hotend.retract_length                  3               # retract length in mm
extruder.hotend.retract_feedrate                45              # retract feedrate in mm/sec
extruder.hotend.retract_recover_length          0               # additional length for recover
extruder.hotend.retract_recover_feedrate        8               # recover feedrate in mm/sec (should be less than retract feedrate)
extruder.hotend.retract_zlift_length            0               # zlift on retract in mm, 0 disables
extruder.hotend.retract_zlift_feedrate          6000            # zlift feedrate in mm/min (Note mm/min NOT mm/sec)

These can be set differently for each extruder defined.

Config/Gcode difference

Please note the inconsistency here with the config specifying mm/sec and the M206/207 specifying mm/min.

Sorry about that.


As all stepper motors, the extruder stepper motor needs 3 pins to be controlled : step, direction and enable ( See Pin Reference and Pinout ) :

1st Extruder (delta, or M4)

extruder.hotend.step_pin                     2.3
extruder.hotend.dir_pin                      0.22
extruder.hotend.en_pin                       0.21


These pins are for the delta ( 4th ) driver on a Smoothieboard. This is what is most commonly used, but in another board or setup, you may have to use other pins.

2nd Extruder (epsilon, or M5)

extruder.hotend2.step_pin                     2.8
extruder.hotend2.dir_pin                     2.13
extruder.hotend2.en_pin                      4.29


These pins are for the epsilon ( 5th ) driver on a Smoothieboard. This is what is most commonly used, but in another board or setup, you may have to use other pins.

Advanced pin configuration

You can do special things to Smoothie pins, for example you can invert them, which is useful to revert the direction of your extruder if it is wired the wrong way around on your board, see Pin Configuration.

You can make your extruder module use any other stepper motor driver, or even an external stepper motor driver, simply by providing the adequate pins for that driver, see Pinout.


On boards which feature current control of the stepper motor drivers ( Smoothieboard or 4pi ), you have to set that value for the extruder too.

This is handled by the Currentcontrol module, but usually, the line for the configuration of a given stepper motor is written along with it's pins, for clarity.

delta_current                                1.5

Set the value to the exact value your stepper motor is rated for ( or less, for less noise, but less torque ).

Setting the current to a value higher than the recommended one causes overheating, and skipped steps.


Here is an example of a common configuration and wiring of an extruder with a Smoothieboard.

This example setup is of an extruder ( stepper motor ) connected to the M4 stepper motor driver.

If your machine has multiple extruders, you also want to look at multiple-extruders.


The default Smoothie configuration example contains an example extruder section, this means you do not need to create a new one, but you can just re-use the sample one.

The configuration looks like this : 

## Extruder module configuration
# See
extruder.hotend.enable                          true          # Whether to activate the extruder module at all. All configuration is ignored if false
extruder.hotend.steps_per_mm                    140           # Steps per mm for extruder stepper
extruder.hotend.default_feed_rate               600           # Default rate ( mm/minute ) for moves where only the extruder moves
extruder.hotend.acceleration                    500           # Acceleration for the stepper motor mm/sec²
extruder.hotend.max_speed                       50            # Maximum speed in mm/s

extruder.hotend.step_pin                        2.3           # Pin for extruder step signal
extruder.hotend.dir_pin                         0.22          # Pin for extruder dir signal ( add '!' to reverse direction )
extruder.hotend.en_pin                          0.21          # Pin for extruder enable signal

delta_current                                   1.5           # Current setting in Amperes for this motor driver

Now that you extruder is configured, you can wire it :


Wiring your extruder stepper motor is very similar to how you wire your X, Y and Z stepper motors ( see adequate documentation ) : you just wire the 4 wires of the stepper motor, to the output connector of the M4 stepper motor driver.

2022/07/17 17:35

A Hotend

It contains a thermistor and a heating element in it's heating block

In a 3D printer, you heat thermoplastics. There are two different parts in which you want to do that. First the hot-end heats the plastic to the point where it is liquid enough to go through the nozzle. Second, the heated bed (in only some printers), on which the first layer is deposited, is heated to allow for better sticking of the plastic to the bed, and more uniform temperature in the part while printing.

For detailed information about temperature control in Smoothie, you can look at this part of the documentation: TemperatureControl

The process is essentially the same to wire and control a hot-end, or a heated bed, and is as follows :

Thermistor inputs

There are 4 of them, close to the SD card slot


A thermistor's resistance changes with temperature. By reading that resistance, we can determine the temperature of a hot-end or a heated bed.

This allows Smoothie to turn the heater on or off depending on the temperature it reads, to achieve the desired temperature.

Wiring a thermistor

To wire the thermistor, take the two wires from the thermistor on your hot-end or heated bed, and connect them to one of the pairs of thermistor inputs on the Smoothieboard. Each input is two pins, one for each thermistor wire. There is no polarity to respect.

Smoothieboard has 4 thermistor inputs total, meaning a line of 8 pins on the edge of the board. Polarity is not important for thermistors.

Analog Ground

The Smoothieboard has two grounds : a normal Ground, shared with the motors and everything else, and a special Analog Ground, which is isolated from the rest, to protect the very sensitive ADCs ( analog to digital converters ) used to read temperatures.

When reading temperature, never use the normal ground to read temperatures, always use the AGND connections provided on the thermistor inputs.

This also means you can not “share the ground” on wires going to your hotend, as some users sometimes do to “save wires”. This is a very bad idea and will cause a lot of problems.

By convention (meaning that if you wire things according to the way it is specified in the default configuration file, you do not need to edit the configuration file as it will already be correct),

  • Hot-end thermistor connects to T0
  • Heated bed thermistor connects to T1

In the default configuration file, the thermistor pins are set up using that convention : 

temperature_control.hotend.thermistor_pin    0.23             # Pin for the thermistor to read (here T0)

temperature_control.bed.thermistor_pin       0.24             # Pin for the heated bed to read (here T1)

You can, however, use any thermistor pin you want for any temperaturecontrol module you want.

A thermistor

They come in all shapes and sizes

There are different models of thermistors. Each hotend or heated bed has one, and it's a specific given type. Different thermistor models translate a given temperature into different resistances. This means you must tell Smoothie which exact thermistor model you have, to be sure Smoothie can read it correctly.

This is done using the thermistor option in the configuration file. You pass it the name of your thermistor, and it will configure the math correctly accordingly.

temperature_control.hotend.thermistor        EPCOS100K

Smoothie does not know the name of all the thermistors in existence. At the moment these are the ones it knows about:

Name Beta for 0-80°C Beta for 185-230°C I for Steinhart Hart J for Steinhart Hart K for Steinhart Hart Part number
EPCOS100K 4066 4193 0.000722378300319346F 0.000216301852054578F 9.2641025635702e-08F B57540G0104F000
Honeywell100K 3974 4385 0.000596153185928425F 0.000231333192738335F 6.19534004306738e-08F 135-104LAG-J01
Semitec 4267 4375 0.000811290160145459F 0.000211355789144265F 7.17614730463848e-08F 104GT-2
Honeywell-QAD 0.000827339299500986F 0.000208786427208899F 8.05595282332277e-08F 135-104QAD-J01
Semitec-104NT4 0.000797110609710217F 0.000213433144381270F 6.5338987554e-08F 104NT-4R025H42G
RRRF100K 3960
RRRF10K 3964
HT100K 3990

In case you have a thermistor that is not known to Smoothie you can simply define the parameters in config. There are two methods, using the beta value ( good but not perfect ), and using the Steinhart Hart algorythm ( perfect ).

Using beta values :

Set the beta value in the configuration file :

temperature_control.hotend.beta       4066   # set beta for thermistor

About beta values

The betas published by most manufacturers, are for the 0-80°C range.

For the 185-230°C this results in readings being about 7-10°C too high.

This means beta values are usually good for a heated bed, but not for a hotend.

If the thermistor is 100K ohms at 25°C then this is usually enough.

You can also set r0,t0,r1,r2 but this is not usually needed as the defaults are sufficient.

If you do not know what thermistor model you have, contact the designer or seller of your 3D printer, hotend or heated bed and get the spec which will tell you what the beta value is for the thermistor.

Using the Steinhart Hart algorythm :

This is the recommended method. Set the parameters in the configuration file :

temperature_control.hotend.coefficients 0.000722376862540841,0.000216302098124288,0.000000092640163984

To find what the Steinhart Hart coefficients for a given thermistor are, please read the SteinhartHart page.

If you have the temperature curve for your thermistor, you can also define three points on that curve, and let Smoothie calculate everything :

temperature_control.hotend.rt_curve          20.0,126800,150,1360,240,206.5
2022/07/17 17:36

Heating element

Now that Smoothie can read the temperature, it needs a way to heat things and maintain a desired temperature. This is the heating element. On a hot-end, that is usually a resistor or a cartridge heater, on a heated bed, that is usually a PCB plate designed to have the right resistance, or a kapton heated bed.

Because of its resistance, when power is applied to a heater, the heater consumes energy to generate heat.

These heating elements need to be connected to Smoothieboard on a port that allows Smoothie to turn them ON or OFF as needed. This is done by the use of MOSFET that takes a digital input signal, and, depending on its value, lets current pass or not.


If it will burn your skin, don't touch it. Simple.

Smoothie has up to 6 MOSFET controls ( 6 on 5X, 4 on 4X and 2 on 3X ). The MOSFETs act as switches to ground: loads must be connected between the power source and the MOSFET switched terminal. When the MOSFET is switched on, power will be applied to the load. When the MOSFET is switched off, power will be removed, because one load terminal will be essentially disconnected and current cannot flow. The exception being inductive load 'flyback' switching transients, discussed above.

Connect your PSU to the power input connector for those FETs (providing power to the load), and connect your power consuming element ( be it heating element, spindle, etc… ) between the power output terminal and the MOSFET terminal. Smoothie connects/disconnects the element's ground as needed to maintain temperature or as requested by G-codes.

There are three main pairs of MOSFETs on the board :

  • Big MOSFET pair : Their outputs are labelled P2_7 and P2_5 on the schematic, the input connector for them is found between them. They are found on the 4X and 5X boards. To power those MOSFETs, you need to provide them with power by wiring their power input to the power supply.
  • Small MOSFET pair : Their outputs are labelled P2_6 and P2_4 on the schematic, the input connector for them is found by their side, between P2_6 and P1_23. They are found on all of the boards. To power those MOSFETs, you need to provide them with power by wiring their power input to the power supply.
  • Mixed MOSFET pair : Their outputs are labelled P1_22 and P1_23 on the schematic. The pair is called “mixed” because it consists of one big MOSFET and one small MOSFET. They do not have a specific input, they take power directly from VBB ( the Stepper motors power input described in the Stepper Motors chapter ). To power those MOSFETs, you need to provide them with power by wiring their power input ( which is the same as the one for the stepper motors ) to the power supply.

Power input

Contrary to other boards, Smoothieboard does not have a single power input, but multiple power inputs.

This allows you to use different voltages for different things if you want, and makes it easier to use more current as the current is shared between more connectors. It does mean wiring one or two more connectors though.

If you are trying to control MOSFETs and they are not turning on, make sure you provided power to their power input.

MOSFETs list :

MOSFET group MOSFET name Controlling pin Output connector Input method Voltage Current
Big MOSFETs First big MOSFET 2.7 X15 Big MOSFETs power input X13 12-24V 12.5A max
Big MOSFETs Second big MOSFET 2.5 X10 Big MOSFETs power input X13 12-24V 12.5A max
Small MOSFETs First small MOSFET 2.4 X7 Small MOSFETs power input X6 12-24V 3A max
Small MOSFETs Second small MOSFET 2.6 X8 Small MOSFETs power input X6 12-24V 3A max
Mixed MOSFETs Third big MOSFET 1.23 X16 VBB ( motor ) input 12-24V 12.5A max
Mixed MOSFETs Third small MOSFET 1.22 X9 VBB ( motor ) input 12-24V 3A max

MOSFETs diagram :


MOSFET power inputs have a polarity, make sure you connect + on that connector to + on your PSU, and - to - on the PSU. Heater elements however do not have a polarity, so you do not have to worry about polarity on the outputs. If you are using another output element like a Peltier or a Spindle, you need to be careful to respect the polarity for the outputs too.

Never use the big MOSFETS for more than 12.5A ( and monitor connector and MOSFET temperatures at that current use, too much heating can be a sign of a bad wire connection ), and the small MOSFETS should never be used for more than 3A.

Trying to power a 40W ( or more ) hotend cartridge heater at 12V with the small FETs will destroy them, usually locking (melting) them to the “ON” state (shorted) and possibly destroying the circuitry driving the MOSFET gate.

If you need to control more than 12 Amps, you cannot do it with one of the MOSFETS on board, however you can use a Solid State Relay. For information see the Solid State Relay Appendix on this page.


In the case of both the Big MOSFETS pair, and the Small MOSFETS pair, you take power from the PSU (Power Supply Unit) to them via their respective power input connectors.

There is an alternative however (for currents up to 2 Amps or 4 Amps). For each pair, you can use jumpers ( one jumper for the small MOSFETS pair ( JP28 ), two parallel jumpers for the two big MOSFETS pair ( JP11 and JP27 ) ). If you solder the pins for those OR connect a jumper to those pins, closing the circuit to VBB ( the stepper motors power input ), allowing you to take the power from those MOSFETS from the same place as the stepper motors do.

In the case of the big MOSFETS, you have to solder and put in place two jumpers, in parallel, in order to handle more current.

Current rating

However, WARNING, each jumper is rated for only 2A of current. This means you can not use this way of powering your MOSFETS if you are going to use more than 2A ( for the small MOSFETS ) or 4A ( for the big MOSFETS, with both jumpers used, for 2 x 2A ).

Do not use the jumpers to power a heated bed for example, as it uses much more than 4A.

2022/07/17 17:35

A heated bed

Often made out of a rigid, or flexible ( kapton ) PCB


Let's say you want to connect a heated bed to your Smoothieboard. First, wire the thermistor to the thermistor input. Then, find out (from the Internet, or your seller/manufacturer) the current rating for that heated bed. In this example it will be the classical RepRap PCB plate Heatbed.

Ours has a 11A current rating, this means we can not use it with a small MOSFET, and we need to wire it to a big MOSFET.

We connect our PSU to the power input for the big MOSFETS pair (don't forget to check the labels on the board for polarity).

Then we connect the two wires from the PCB bed to one of the big MOSFETS out. Polarity is not important here.

Because this is the heated bed, we connect it to the P2_7 (pin 2.7 in the configuration file). This is a convention: it is configured that way in the default configuration file, meaning that if you connect it there, you do not need to change the configuration file to specify where you are connecting it: the configuration file is already correct.

For the hot-end, the default output is P2_4 (pin 2.4 in the configuration file).

To set a different MOSFET output for the bed or the hot-end, you have to edit the configuration file to the digital output pin corresponding to your chosen MOSFET. These are the lines you would have to edit : 

temperature_control.hotend.heater_pin        2.7              # Pin that controls the heater cartridge for the hot-end
temperature_control.bed.heater_pin           2.5              # Pin that controls the heated bed

To help you figure out what is what, here is a recapitulating table :

Label on diagram P2_7 P2_5 P2_4 P2_6 P1_23 P1_22
Digital output pin 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.6 1.23 1.22
Power Input Between P2_7 and P2_5 Between P2_6 and P1_23 Taken from VBB
Size Big Big Small Small Big Small
Maximum current 12A 12A 3A 3A 12A 3A
Used by default for Heated bed Hotend 0 Fan Hotend 1
2022/07/17 17:35


Once your thermistor is connected, and both the power input and the heater elements are plugged in, you are ready to test your temperature controller.

To do this, reset your Smoothieboard, then connect to it using host software like Pronterface, or using the web interface.

Now connect to your Smoothieboard over the serial interface. Power your machine on by plugging the PSU into the wall.

If anything burns or smells funny, turn everything off immediately and investigate.

The heaters are off by default when Smoothie starts. Check that they are not heating ( one indication of the heater being ON is if the LED near the MOSFET is lit up, the other being checking the heater itself ), if they are heating, something is wrong, turn everything off immediately and investigate.

Now, in Pronterface, set the temperature for either your bed or your hot-end, depending on what you are testing ( wire and test only one at a time for easier problem investigation ) at a low temperature (20°C above room temperature is a good idea), and monitor temperature to see if the temperature rises. If it does rise, everything is fine. If not, turn everything off immediately and investigate.

Once you know the heater works correctly, there is still some tuning to do: tuning your PID settings.


Simple bang-bang heater control

It's not very refined

PID is important. Without PID, a simple way to control temperature would be :

  • If temperature too cold, turn heater on
  • If temperature too hot, turn heater off

But there is a big problem with that method. Due to temperature not travelling instantly in what you heat from the heater to the thermistor, when the thermistor reads a given temperature, the heater is already hotter than what the thermistor reads. And that overshooting is something we do not want. It means reaching temperatures that could be undesirable, and it means you will not be able to correctly stabilize the temperature.

The solution to this is PID. It uses some math, allowing us to correct those problems by turning the heater on and off in a smarter sequence.

The P, I and D factors are configured as follows :

temperature_control.hotend.p_factor     100
temperature_control.hotend.i_factor     0.1
temperature_control.hotend.d_factor     100

But the really tricky thing is to find the right values for these 3 factors : the default ones are most probably wrong for your setup. So unless you have been given those values with your hardware, or you are a PID grand-master, you will need some help :


Do not try to use PID settings from Marlin as they are not compatible.

2022/07/17 17:35

PID autotuning

Using a process described here, Smoothie can automatically tune ( find ) your P, I and D factors.

Here is an example of the G-code command used to launch PID autotune :

M303 E0 S190
  • E0 is the number of the heater or bed temperature control module, determined by the order that they appear in the config file. Here it would be 0 for the hotend, and 1 for the bed.
  • S190 is the temperature to autotune for. Use the temperature you will be using your heater at in real life. For a hotend here we use 190c

When you run the command, tuning begins :

Target: 190.0
Start PID tune, command is M303 E0 S190
T: Starting PID Autotune, M304 aborts
T:  21.3/190.0 @80 1 0/8
T:  22.0/190.0 @80 1 0/8
T:  22.3/190.0 @80 1 0/8
T:  22.1/190.0 @80 1 0/8
Etc ...

It continues for 3 to 8 cycles, heating up, cooling down. Then :

Cycle 4: max: 246.189, min: 227.627, avg separation: 0.418274
	Ku: 34.9838, Pu: 39.85
	Kp:  21.0
	Ki: 1.053
	Kd:   105
PID Autotune Complete! The settings above have been loaded into memory, but not written to your config file.

Now edit your configuration to use those three values ( Kp is P_factor, Ki is I_factor, Kd is D_factor ), reset, and temperature control should work much better. (Also M301 can be used to set the PID values and saved with M500)

Alternatively, you can also enter the following G-code :


Which will save the configuration values automatically in a configuration override file.

Learn more about configuration overrides here : Configuring Smoothie


Do not send M303 over the web interface, use Telnet, Pronterface or any other serial terminal. If sent over the web, the answers will accumulate in Smoothie's RAM and may crash it.

2022/07/17 17:36

Heater safety

There are features you can configure to make sure that your temperaturecontrol module will detect when something is wrong, and stop the machine when that happens.

It is a good thing to read about these, and configure them as best as you can, because your house burning down is a very bad thing.

It is also a good thing to configure it well, because if you do not, it is possible Smoothie will think there is a problem when there is none, which can be annoying.

You can read more about temperature control safety here.

Example setup

This information is all very abstract.

Here is an example setup for a simple 3D printer with one hotend and one heated bed :

In this setup :

  • The heated bed is 12A at 12V, or 144W
  • The hotend is 3A at 12V, or 36W

We are going to use the first big mosfet to control the bed, it has a current limit of 12.5A so we are within limits.

We also need to provide power to the first big mosfet via the big mosfet power input.

We can not however use the second big mosfet for anything, because if we did, we would go over the 12.5A limit of the big mosfet power input's connector.

This is because the input must provide power to both outputs, so if we were for example to connect a 12.5A load to the first big mosfet, and a 2.5A load to the second big mosfet, the total passing through the big mosfet input would be 15A, which is over the 12.5A limit.

Therefore, we will use the first small mosfet to control the hotend. 3A is well within it's limit.

Here again, we need to provide power to the small mosfet, via the small mosfet power input.

This means we will make 4 connections :

  • Connecting the heated bed to the first big mosfet output
  • Connecting the power supply to the big mosfet power input
  • Connecting the hotend to the first small mosfet output
  • Connecting the power supply to the small mosfet power input

Example wiring with a hotend and a heated bed

Note how the mosfets need power provided to their power inputs

An endstop

It's essentially just a switch


End-stops are small interrupters that you put at the end of each of your axes. When you boot your machine up, Smoothie has no way of knowing the position of each axis. When it starts a print, Smoothie moves the axis until it touches that interrupter, and when it is hit, it declares that that is position 0 for that axis. And does so for all axes.

This allows Smoothie to then precisely know where everything is relative to that initial position. It is quite convenient as it saves you the hassle of actually moving the machine into that position when you want to start a print. Automation is great.

However, end-stops are not necessary, you could do without them. They are just so convenient that most machines use them.

End-stops can also be used as limit switches which prevent the machine from attempting to move beyond the physical limits of the axis (by pausing/stopping movement when triggered), see the Endstops page for details about configuring Smoothie to use End Stops as limit switches.


To make things as simple as possible: In Smoothie, endstops do three things :

  • Homing ( move til endstop is hit )
  • Hard endstops ( stop when endstop is hit, which is optional )
  • Soft endstop ( once homed, do not go further than a set position, which is also optional )


Smoothie does not allow you to use a zprobe as an endstop. An endstop must be dedicated to being an endstop and cannot be used as a zprobe and vice versa. This does not mean *ANY* kind of feature is missing, you can still do everything you expect, this is just a subtility in vocubulary and in how configuration is organized, that new users are generally fine with, *except* if they come from another system which has a different paradygm.

Endstop inputs on a Smoothieboard v1

There are 6 of them, two for each axis

Mechanical endstop wiring

This will concentrate on the most common type of end-stops : the mechanical ones. Other types exist like optical or hall-o sensors.

Fancy Smancy

There are plenty of fun and futuristic endstop types around : optical, laser, magnetic, force-sensitive, infrared, inductive, etc…

However, please note that the general feedback from the community, is that most of those are either less precise, less repeatable, or much more difficult to get to “work right”, compared to the classical “mechanical” endstop.

The mechanical endstop is actually likely the most precise, repeatable and easy to get to work option you have at your disposal. Just because these other options exist and have been explored by the community, does not mean they are better.

You might happen have a good reason to use a fancy endstop, but if you don't, it's likely a good idea to stick with a mechanical one.

Mechanical end-stops are simple interrupters : when not pressed, they do not let the current pass, when pressed, they let the current pass. By connecting a digital input pin on the Smoothieboard to the interrupter, and connecting the other side of the interrupter to Ground, the Smoothieboard can read whether or not it is connected to Ground, and therefore whether or not the end-stop is pressed.

Most mechanical end-stops have 3 connection points, to which you have to attach your wires :

  • C : Common
  • NO : Normally Open, meaning it is not connected to C when the interrupter is not pressed, and connected to C when the interrupter is pressed.
  • NC : Normally Closed, meaning it is connected to C when the interrupter is not pressed, and connected not to C when the interrupter is pressed.

Wiring a basic NC endstop

You want to connect the **Signal** ( green in the schematic ) and **Ground** ( blue in the schematic ) pins for the end-stop on the Smoothieboard, to the **C** and **NC** connection points on the end-stop.

Normally Closed

For each endstop, we connect C to Signal and NC to Ground because this means the digital input pin ( endstop connector ) will be connected to Ground in it's normal state and cut from Ground when the button is pressed. This approach is less prone to noise than the reverse. See here for more information.

Another positive effect of this approach is, that if a wire breaks for some reason you get the same signal as if the endstop is pressed. That makes sure that even with a damaged wire you are not able to overrun the endstop.

Order is not important as polarity is not important here.


Make absolutely sure that you do not connect VCC ( red ) and GND ( blue ) to a mechanical (microswitch) endstop! Depending on your wiring this may fry your smoothieboard instantly or when the switch gets pressed. There is certain wiring where this won't happen when you switch the signal between VCC and GND, but if you're not careful enough you will damage your board.

You want to connect your X end-stop to the X min pins, Y end-stop to the Y min pins, and Z end-stop to the Z min pins.

Powered endstops wiring

Mechanical endstops are simple switches, they simply let a signal pass through, or not, allowing us to detect their status with an endstop input. It has no intelligence of it's own.

There are more sophisticated endstops. Those are “powered endstops”, for example : Hall-O ( magnetic ) or optical endstops.

The only difference between a mechanical endstop and those powered endstops is that they require being provided with 5V power.

This means that where for a mechanical endstop you connect the Signal and GND pins, for a powered endstop, you connect the Signal, GND and 5V pins.

Other than this, it works exactly the same as a mechanical endstop : The Signal pin receives something different depending on whether the endstop is triggered or not.

Different powered endstops have different behaviors :

Some connect Signal to Ground when triggered, and Signal to 5V when not triggered.

Others connect Signal to 5V when triggered, and Signal to Ground when not triggered.

To know exactly what your endstop does, see it's documentation.

If once wired, your endstop reports the opposite of what it should via the M119 command ( 1 when triggered/pushed, and 0 when not triggered ), see the “Testing” section.

Some endstops might require removing their “pull-up” configuration, in this case, change :

alpha_min_endstop                            1.28^

To :

alpha_min_endstop                            1.28

And if you need it to be a pull-down, change it to

alpha_min_endstop                            1.28v

In some very rare cases, the endstop reading circuit on the Smoothieboard will not be adequate for your endstop type. In this case, you should use a “free” GPIO pin on the Smoothieboard that nothing else uses to connect your endstop to.

See Pinout to find adequate pins.


The default configuration most probably already has everything you need : the pins are already correct and the default speeds are reasonable.

Once they are wired, you can test your end-stops.

To do this, reset your Smoothieboard, then connect to it using host software like Pronterface or the web interface.

Now connect to your Smoothieboard over the serial interface. Power your machine on by plugging the PSU into the wall.

Now in Pronterface, home one axis by clicking the small “home” icon for that axis. Begin with X, then Y, then Z.

If your axis moves until it hits the end-stop, then stops when it hits it, moves a small distance back, then goes a bit slower back to the end-stop and stops, that end-stop is working fine.

On the other hand, if the axis moves a small distance in the wrong direction, then stops, you have a problem : your Smoothieboard always reads the end-stop as being pressed. So when you ask it to move until the end-stop is hit, it reads it immediately as pressed and stops there.

Another problem can be that the axis moves and never stops, even after the end-stop is physically hit. This means your Smoothieboard actually never reads the end-stop as being pressed.

There is a command that allows you to debug this kind of situation : in Pronterface, enter the “M119” G-code.

Smoothie will answer with the status of each endstop like this :

X min:1 Y min:0 Z min:0

This means : X endstop is pressed, Y and Z endstops are not pressed.

Use a combination of this command, and manually pressing end-stop, to determine what is going on.

If an end-stop is read as always pressed, or never pressed, even when you press or release it, then you probably have a wiring problem, check everything.

If an endstop is read as pressed when it is not, and not pressed when it is, then your end-stop is inverted.

You can fix that situation by inverting the digital input pin in your configuration file. For example if your X min endstop pin is inverted, change :

alpha_min_endstop                            1.28^

To :

alpha_min_endstop                            1.28^!

Here is the exact mapping of pin names to inputs on the Smoothieboard :

Config value alpha_min alpha_max beta_min beta_max gamma_min gamma_max
Pin name 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29

More information can be found here.

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Fans are important: they help you cool things down. On a 3D printer there are two main things you need to cool :

First most often your hot-end's “cool” part (the top of it) needs to be cooled so heat does not accumulate there and transfer to the rest of the machine and damage it.

Secondly, you often (in the case of printing PLA) need to cool down the top layer currently being printed by your machine so that heat does not accumulate in the printed part and cause mayhem.

While the first one is usually safest being always powered on, the second one you want digital control via MOSFETs, as most modern slicing software allows for smart control of that fan.

Always ON fan

For the fan that is always ON, all you need is to find power somewhere to power it.

You can wire it directly to your PSU ( + goes to +, - goes to - ), but there is also a little trick if you want to wire it to your Smoothieboard.

If you add the jumper to JP28 like described in the MOSFETs section of the Temperature Control section of this tutorial, then the connector usually used for providing power to the small MOSFETs, will actually output whatever power is provided to the VBB (stepper motors) connector.

This means you can simply add this jumper, then connect your fan to the small MOSFETs power input (X6).

Digitally controlled fan

You do not need a big MOSFET to control a fan. One of the small MOSFETs is more than enough. See the Temperature Control section to identify which you want to use and which GPIO pin corresponds to that MOSFET.

Then, you need to edit your configuration file to add (or alter) this section :

# Switch module for fan control                            true             #                  M106             #                 M107             #                        2.4              # The pin matching the MOSFET we chose                       pwm              # PWM output settable with S parameter in the input_on_comand                           255              # set max PWM for the pin default is 255

Now wire the fan to the output for that MOSFET (here it is the first small MOSFET, using pin 2.4), make sure you respect polarity.

Wiring a fan to a small mosfet

The fan is wired to the output for the first small mosfet ( watch the polarity, and make sure you always add a diode when wiring a fan ), and the small mosfets are getting power via their power input. (NB Note - newer revisions of the Smoothieboard now come with the Diodes installed on the Small Mosfets - do a visual check to confirm)

You can now control your fan digitally: issue the M106 G-code to turn it on, and M107 to turn it off. Those are also the commands slicing software generates to control fans.


Fans ( and other active loads like solenoids, mechanical relays, motors, anything with a coil ) can feed power back into the MOSFET and destroy it.

You likely will be fine for fans with current ratings below 0.25Amps (most common types), however, while it is common practice to omit the diode under that rating, we still require you install one for safety. (Understand: if you do not install a diode and burn your MOSFET because of it, it will be considered user error.) Above this, you need to install a diode across the MOSFET's power output as you are pretty much guaranteed to burn the MOSFET without one. (NB Note - newer revisions of the Smoothieboard now come with the Diodes installed on the Small Mosfets - do a visual check to confirm)

Version 1.1 and up: Diodes added on a Smoothieboard

Note starting with Smoothieboard version 1.1, **you do not need to do this anymore** on the first two small mosfets, as the diodes are there by default.

Prior to version 1.1 PCBs: Adding Diodes to a Smoothieboard

The diode should be installed with the white band (negative side of the diode) soldered to the + (positive side) of the power output, and the other side to the - (negative side) of the power output. Good diodes to use are: 1N5819 or SS34 series should be fine, basically any shottky type rated 30-40V and 1-3A. (NB Note - newer revisions of the Smoothieboard now come with the Diodes installed on the Small Mosfets - do a visual check to confirm)


If you are using a 24V PSU, do not use 12V fans. You definitely need 24V fans with a 24V PSU.

Lowering the PWM is not going to work, and will destroy your fan.


Smoothie allows you to use a probe to do a variety of things : 

  • Calibrate machine geometry, for example for delta machines
  • Automatically level un-even or non-level surfaces, using either grid or three-point methods
  • Automatically find the distance between the tool and either the workpiece or the build surface
  • Automatically detect tool lengths

To learn more about probing with Smoothie, read the zprobe module documentation.

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A panel is the combination of a screen, and some kind of input method, attached to the machine, that allows you to easily do things like move the carriage, start a file, monitor it's status, etc.

In order to use a panel with a Smoothieboard, you need to wire it to the board, and to modify the configuration file so the board knows it's talking to a panel.

There are different types of panels supported by Smoothieboard, to learn how to wire and configure for your specific panel, please read the Panel page.

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Printing, milling or cutting from the SD card

Printing, milling or cutting from the SD card on Smoothieboard is easy. First, you transfer your gcode files to the card. You can do this by moving the SD card to your computer and copying the files to it or simply copy the files to the card when it mounts on your desktop. If it isn't mounting automatically, you are probably running Linux and have automount disabled. You can change that or manually mount it. The other option is to use the built in Web Server if you have installed the RJ45 connector and an ethernet connection to the board. You can upload files to the SD card with this convenient Web interface.

Now, with your gcode files on the SD card, there are a few options to run it from there :

Serial terminal

You can use a serial port terminal application like CoolTerm (it supports OSX, Windows, Linux) or Cutecom ( OSX and Linux ). Once connected, enter Help to get a list of supported console commands.

If you use Pronterface with your 3D printer, you can use its built-in serial terminal feature - just prefix serial commands with an “@”. So, once connected to smoothie send “@help” and it will list all of the available commands.

You can find more information about using the Play command here.

You can also use the M24 G-code to play files from the SD card, see Supported G-codes.

Web interface

Another option is to use the Web interface mentioned above.


If you have a panel (like the RepRapDiscount GLCD) you can use the panel menus to run/pause/stop printing your gcode files.
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How well your machine is wired is going to determine how long it lives and how resistant it is to breakage.

We have a great guide on different techniques and recommendations, please read the how to wire page.

Crimping connectors

If your Smoothieboard came with connectors, you got connector casings, and crimps. You will need to attach your crimps to your cables, and then insert the crimps into the connector casings.

This tutorial is a good read about crimping properly.


Please be careful and patient, if you have never done it before you will probably fail a few times before getting the hang of it. Also be careful to insert the crimp into your connector the right way around.

Soldering connectors

Please read this comic before soldering anything.

Using two steppers motor on a single driver

Stepper motor drivers on Smoothieboard can handle up to 2Amps per driver.

If you want to control two separate motors with a single driver ( for example you have two stepper motors for your Y axis like on a Shapeoko, or two stepper motors for your Z axis like on a Reprap Prusa i3 ) and have both motors move simultaneously, you have two options.

If the total of the current used by your motors is more than 2Amps ( for example two 1.5Amps motors are 3Amps ), you can not wire them together on a single driver, and you need to look at doubling drivers just bellow.

However, if your total current is less than 2Amps, you can wire both motors in parallel to a single driver.

To do so, find for each stepper motor, which wires match which coils, and wire the same coils into the stepper motor connections on the Smoothieboard ( two wires per connection, one from each motor, for each pin ).

If when you test it, the two motors turn in reverse, you need to reverse one of the coils of one of the stepper motors, and they will start turning in the same direction.

You also need to set a current value for that driver that matches the total current your two motors will be using. For example if the motors are each 0.8Amps, your total is 1.6Amps and you need to set for that specific driver ( here gamma driver is shown ) :

gamma_current      1.6

Doubling stepper motor drivers.

If you need to drive two motors with a single axis, but the total current used for the motors is more than 2Amps ( for example two 1.5Amps motors add up to 3Amps ), you can not wire the steppers in parallel to a single driver and have it control both motors at the same time like described above.

This is the case for example for the Y axis of Shapeoko machines.

In this case, you will need to use one driver for each of your motors. This means you need a Smoothieboard with one more stepper motor driver than you have axes. If you have 3 axes and need to double one, you will need a 4X or a 5X Smoothieboard.

To enslave a driver to another, you will need to connect the control pins for both drivers together.

For example if you want the epsilon ( M5 ) driver to be the slave to the gamma ( M3 ) driver you will need to connect : 

  • EN3 to EN5
  • ST3 to ST5
  • DIR3 to DIR5

The connectors for this can be found close to the stepper motor drivers, and are labelled.

Finally you need to do two things in your configuration file :

First, set the current value for both drivers. For example if you are using gamma and epsilon set : 

gamma_current       1.5
epsilon_current      1.5

Then, you need to make sure that none of the step, dir and enable configuration values for your slave stepper motor driver, are present in the configuration file.

For example if you are using gamma as a slave, make sure that none of the following values are present in the configuration file : 


If they are, remove them. And be careful, for the delta driver, if you started from the 3D printer configuration file, they are not refered to as delta_xxx_pin but as extruder_xxx_pin, if they are present you must remove them all.

Only remove the lines for the slave driver.

External Stepper Drivers

The logic pins that control the stepper drivers are broken out on all 5 axes to 1×4 pin headers found near each driver on the board. The 4 pins are EN, DIR, STP, and ground. These pins or their equivalents are found on most external stepper drivers. Many drivers call the STP (step) pin PUL (pulse). Some will call the DIR (direction) pin PHA (phase).

Most external drivers have both a + and - pin for each of EN, DIR, and STP. The simplest way to connect the external driver is to wire Smoothieboard GND to all 3 - pins, and the logic pins of Smoothieboard to the corresponding + pins. Note that Smoothie is 3.3V logic and each pin can only supply a maximum current of 4 mA, which is not usually a problem unless interfacing to very large, or very old external drivers which may need a little more.


While this example will show using the pins of one of the on-board drivers to control the external driver, you can use pretty much any free GPIO pin to control the step/direction/enable pins on your external driver.

See pinout and pin usage to find free pins.

All loadouts of Smoothieboard (3x, 4x, 5x) can control 5 external stepper drivers using these ports. The presence or absence of a built in driver will not affect the external driver.

Wiring an external driver with a common cathode

This shows control of an external driver using the pins on the positive side of the external driver's input.

Please note, if your external driver requires 5V, that Smoothieboard only provides 3.3v on it's output pins.

Two solutions to this : either use a level shifter or use the Smoothieboard's pins as Open-Drain ( ie linking to ground instead of linking to 3.3v, when closed ), and wire accordingly.

For example : 

Wiring an external driver with a common anode

Here, the 5V is taken from an endstop input's positive terminal, taken to the 5V inputs on the external driver. The step/direction/enable pins on the Smoothieboard are taken to the GND inputs on the external driver.

In this case, you will also need to change those pins to be open-drain. To change a pin from being normal to being open-drain, you add a O LowerCase “o” to the pin's number. For example :

alpha_step_pin    2.0      # Pin for alpha stepper step signal


alpha_step_pin   2.0o     # Pin for alpha stepper step signal

it's also possible to invert a pin:

alpha_step_pin   2.0!o     # Pin for alpha stepper step signal

ReprapDiscount Silencio

Reprap Discount has a nice external driver called the Silencio.

It does 1/128 microstepping, so using it with Smoothie makes a lot of sense since Smoothie can do higher step rates.

It comes with an adapter for pololu-type drivers for RAMPS-type boards. However, you can also simply wire it to Smoothie's external driver connectors.

The only catch is : the pins are not in the same order in Smoothie and on the driver's cable. (Note the colors maybe different on your cable)

Silencio cable color Black Green Red Blue
Silencio connector order +5v Enable Direction Step
Smoothie connector order Ground Step Direction Enable

No big deal though, you simply need to swap the step and enable pins in the configuration file. Also DO NOT connect the Black wire to the 4th pin om smoothie which is gnd on smoothie, it must be connected to a +5v pin elsewhere (eg on the endstops)

Additionally, you need to invert ( by adding a ! to the pin number ) the enable pin ( that's specific to the Silencio ) The step pin does not need to be inverted.

For example for your alpha driver, change :

alpha_step_pin      2.0       # Pin for alpha stepper step signal
alpha_dir_pin       0.5       # Pin for alpha stepper direction
alpha_en_pin        0.4       # Pin for alpha enable pin


alpha_step_pin      2.0       # Pin for alpha stepper step signal
alpha_dir_pin       0.5       # Pin for alpha stepper direction
alpha_en_pin        0.4!      # Pin for alpha enable pin

And just wire the Silencio connector to the Smoothieboard external driver connector

TB6600 external driver

There are more versions labeled TB6600 on the market, but they use different driver chips inside. First of all you'll need to know, if the driver is ok with higher step rates (200 kHz), or you'll have to tune Microseconds_per_step_pulse and/or Base_stepping_frequency.

Since TB6600 uses 5V signals and Smoothie is 3.3V we should either use TTL converters or open-drain (as mentioned before). My setup uses open-drain with 5V taken from the board ( signals are connected to “-” pins, 5V is to all “+” pins ).

The config is the following for alpha, but it's the same for the rest:

# Stepper module pins ( ports, and pin numbers, appending "!" to the number will invert a pin )
alpha_step_pin                               2.0!o              # Pin for alpha stepper step signal
alpha_dir_pin                                0.5!o              # Pin for alpha stepper direction
alpha_en_pin                                 0.4!o              # Pin for alpha enable pin

If you want to change the rotating direction, simply leave out the “!”:

alpha_dir_pin                                0.5o              # Pin for alpha stepper direction

Multiple drivers in parralel

If one of your axes requires more than one motor and driver, you can wire the control signals for one axis to multiple drivers, like so : 

External drivers wired in parralel

Solid State Relays

The big mosfets on the Smoothieboard can handle up to 12Amps. Sometimes that's not enough. Say you want to control a big spindle, a gigantic heated bed, or a tesla coil.

Typical Solid State Relays ( SSR ) can handle up to 40Amps easily, sometimes more. AC ones can run 220V AC, and DC ones up to 60V DC ( typically, look at the specs for yours ).

To control your Solid State Relay ( SSR ), you will need one GPIO pin ( use one of the free ones on the board ideally ), and a connection to GND ( plenty of those ).

A SSR is essentially a big switch : you cut a wire, plug each end of the cut wire into it's two terminals, and then you'll be able to control whether or not those two ends of the wire connect or not. Simple as that.

Wiring a Solid State Relay

You will need to connect GND on the Smoothieboard to the "-" connection on the Input side of the SSR, and the GPIO pin on the Smoothieboard to the "+" connection on the Input side of the SSR. This example shows using P1.30

Then simply configure the module that will be using the SSR to use that pin, for example in the case of Switch :

switch.misc.enable                   true #
switch.misc.input_on_command         M42  #
switch.misc.input_off_command        M43  #
switch.misc.output_pin               2.4  # GPIO pin we connected to "+" on the SSR
switch.misc.output_type              digital        # just an on or off pin

In the case of TemperatureControl, where you use the SSR to control a heating element for example, there is a catch.

SSRs have a low maximum frequency they can be switched at. You need to specify that frequency or Smoothie will drive it way too fast. In this example, the maximum frequency is 20Hz.

So, you need to modify your module to both use the correct pin ( the free GPIO you wired to the SSR ), and to the correct frequency. Here are the two lines to change : 

temperature_control.swimming_pool_heating.heater_pin               2.4
temperature_control.swimming_pool_heating.pwm_frequency            20

Another option, which turns the heaters on/off even less often, is to use bang-bang, where the state is only changed when temperature deviates too much from the set value :

temperature_control.bed.bang_bang            true            # set to true to use bang bang control rather than PID
temperature_control.bed.hysteresis           2.0             # set to the temperature in degrees C to use as hysteresis
                                                              # when using bang bang

Swapping stepper motor drivers

On some boards, you might want to swap two axes.

For example, you have a board that has two connectors on the Z axis, but you want to connect two motors to the Y axis ( which has only one connector ).

In that case, all you need to do is exchange the 3 pin definitions for these two axes.

For example : 

beta_step_pin                                2.1              # Pin for beta stepper step signal
beta_dir_pin                                 0.11             # Pin for beta stepper direction
beta_en_pin                                  0.10             # Pin for beta enable

gamma_step_pin                               2.2              # Pin for gamma stepper step signal
gamma_dir_pin                                0.20             # Pin for gamma stepper direction
gamma_en_pin                                 0.19             # Pin for gamma enable

Becomes :

beta_step_pin                                2.2              # Pin for beta stepper step signal
beta_dir_pin                                 0.20             # Pin for beta stepper direction
beta_en_pin                                  0.19             # Pin for beta enable

gamma_step_pin                               2.1              # Pin for gamma stepper step signal
gamma_dir_pin                                0.11             # Pin for gamma stepper direction
gamma_en_pin                                 0.10             # Pin for gamma enable

Now your beta driver becomes your Z axis, and your gamma driver becomes your Y axis.

Please note that the current control parameters do not get swapped : Alpha_current always controls the current for M1, no matter what you do to the step/direction pins.

Which pins are which

Smoothieboard pinout

Full size version

Smoothieboard pin capabilities

Full size version

Also see the pin usage table

Notes :

  • Do not use endstop inputs as outputs ( for example to control a solid state relay ), this will not work.
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Protecting a power input with a fuse

A Fuse is a device which sacrifices itself ( gets destroyed and stops letting electricity through ) if the current passing through it is higher than a certain value.

As such, adding a fuse between your power supply and a power input on your Smoothieboard protects you against short circuits, overloading, mismatched loads, or any kind of device failure.

You need to choose a fuse with a value higher than your “normal” current for a given circuit. For example if your heated bed consumes 10A, you want to have a 15A fuse protecting it, that way if everything is fine the fuse does not burn, but in case of a short circuit, it does.

Here is an example of a fuse protecting the mosfet power input :

Protecting your board with a fuse

Note the fuse must have an adequate rating

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2022/07/17 17:35

Multiple extruders

Multiple extrusion

It's very cool

You can setup Smoothie to handle upto 3 extruders. (6 defined axis is the maximum the memory can handle).

Simply add Extruder ( controlling the extruder motor ) and TemperatureControl ( controlling the hotend ) modules to the configuration file for each new extruder.

NOTE that the default build of Smoothie only supports 2 extruders (5 axis), if you need 3 extruders you need to compile with make AXIS=6

Hardware requirements

For each extruder you are going to need :

  • One temperature input for the hotend. Smoothieboard has 4 thermistor inputs, this means one heated bed and three hotends, or four hotends and no bed. To add additional hotends you have the option of using thermocouple external boards, which can be connected to the SPI port : either a single one, or four using a SPI hub, leaving you with a maximam total of 8 hotends, or more if you chain SPI hubs.
  • One MOSFET output : Smoothieboard has 6 MOSFET outputs maximum ( 3 small 3 big ) that can be used for hotends, but depending on whether or not you use a bed you might only have 5 available. However you can wire external MOSFETs or SSRs to any free GPIO pin, giving you as many as there are free GPIO pins ( going to 8 or more being then easy ).
  • One stepper motor driver. Smoothieboard has 5 maximum ( depending on board type ). You need 3 for 3-dimensional movement, regardless of your arm solution. This leaves you being able to drive at most two extruders with the on-board drivers. However, wiring additional drivers is as simple as using free GPIO pins. Simply wire any pin on the Smoothieboard as the step, direction and enable pins for your external stepper driver.

This means, assuming you are using a heated bed, you can drive two extruders easily with what is on-board the Smoothieboard. To go to three extruders you will need to add one external stepper motor driver. To go to four you will need to add another external stepper motor driver, and use a SPI thermocouple temperature input external board, etc …

We will here concentrate on a dual extruder setup.


The default configuration in the Smoothie firmware is for a single extruder.

In order to setup a second one, you need to use the syntax dedicated to multiple extruder systems. This means using the “module generation” syntax you could be familiar with from the TemperatureControl and Switch modules.

Here is what it looks like :

## Extruder module configuration
# See

extruder.hotend.enable                          true          # Whether to activate the extruder module at all. All configuration is ignored if false
extruder.hotend.steps_per_mm                    140           # Steps per mm for extruder stepper
extruder.hotend.default_feed_rate               600           # Default rate ( mm/minute ) for moves where only the extruder moves
extruder.hotend.acceleration                    500           # Acceleration for the stepper motor mm/sec²
extruder.hotend.max_speed                       50            # Maximum speed in mm/s
extruder.hotend.step_pin                        2.3           # Pin for extruder step signal
extruder.hotend.dir_pin                         0.22          # Pin for extruder dir signal ( add '!' to reverse direction )
extruder.hotend.en_pin                          0.21          # Pin for extruder enable signal
delta_current                                   1.5           # First extruder stepper motor current

# Second extruder module configuration
extruder.hotend2.enable                         true         # Whether to activate the extruder module at all. All configuration is ignored if false
extruder.hotend2.steps_per_mm                   140          # Steps per mm for extruder stepper
extruder.hotend2.default_feed_rate              600          # Default rate ( mm/minute ) for moves where only the extruder moves
extruder.hotend2.acceleration                   500          # Acceleration for the stepper motor, as of 0.6, arbitrary ratio
extruder.hotend2.max_speed                      50           # mm/s
extruder.hotend2.step_pin                       2.8          # Pin for extruder step signal
extruder.hotend2.dir_pin                        2.13         # Pin for extruder dir signal ( add '!' to reverse direction )
extruder.hotend2.en_pin                         4.29         # Pin for extruder enable signal
epsilon_current                                 1.5          # Second extruder stepper motor current

As you can see it is quite similar to the normal extruder configuration, only extended to multiple extruders. You can add other extruders the same way. There is no specific name you have to name your extruders, simply add as many as you want, with whatever names you want, as long as the names are different.

Simply replace your current extruder configuration with this in the config file.

You will also need to configure an additional TemperatureControl module for the hotend.

It is recommended you read the TemperatureControl documentation.

Here is an example configuration for a two extruders setup :

## Temperature control configuration
# See

# First hotend configuration
temperature_control.hotend.enable            true             # Whether to activate this ( "hotend" ) module at all.
temperature_control.hotend.thermistor_pin    0.23             # Pin for the thermistor to read
temperature_control.hotend.heater_pin        2.7              # Pin that controls the heater, set to nc if a readonly thermistor is being defined
temperature_control.hotend.thermistor        EPCOS100K        # See
temperature_control.hotend.set_m_code        104              # M-code to set the temperature for this module
temperature_control.hotend.set_and_wait_m_code 109            # M-code to set-and-wait for this module
temperature_control.hotend.designator        T0               # Designator letter for this module

# Second hotend configuration
temperature_control.hotend2.enable            true           # Whether to activate this ( "hotend2" ) module at all.
temperature_control.hotend2.thermistor_pin    0.25           # Pin for the thermistor to read
temperature_control.hotend2.heater_pin        1.23           # Pin that controls the heater
temperature_control.hotend2.thermistor        EPCOS100K      # See
temperature_control.hotend2.set_m_code        104            # M-code to set the temperature for this module
temperature_control.hotend2.set_and_wait_m_code 109          # M-code to set-and-wait for this module
temperature_control.hotend2.designator        T1             # Designator letter for this module


Please do not mindlessly copy/paste the examples here, they probably do not fit your particular setup. Understand what is going on, and actually adapt the configuration to your specific situation. These are only examples.

1 hotend, two extruders

If you have two extruders going into one hotend, you need to set-up two extruder modules, and one temperaturecontrol module. Make sure you name the temperaturecontrol differently from the extruder modules so none of them gets preference.

If doing this setup with the Cura software, this additional Cura module might be helpful :


The first extruder in this configuration is wired to M4, the second one to M5.

If you have more extruders, you will need to use external stepper motor drivers. Please see the specific documentation for this in the 3D printer guide.

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Safety thermistor

Hot-ends have a heating element (controlled by a MOSFET) and a thermistor to read its temperature.

When the thermistor is read, the Smoothie calculates the temperature, and then turns the heater on or off depending on whether heat is needed or not.

A few bad things can happen :

  • The thermistor can get disconnected from the board, in this case, Smoothie detects it and turns everything off.
  • The thermistor can fall off the heater, in which case Smoothie will think the hot-end is cold, and heat it too much.
  • The MOSFET can fail, and be always on, resulting in the hot-end being over-heated.

One way to prevent the last two bad things, is to add a second thermistor to the hot-end. The second thermistor also reads the temperature on the hot-end, and if something goes bad, Smoothie turns the PSU off, preventing damage.

To implement this, you need three things:

  • A switch module that turns the PSU on and OFF. (See the Switch documentation.)
  • A temperaturecontrol module that doesn't control any MOSFET, but reads just the safety thermistor.
  • A temperatureswitch module that turns a switch off if a temperaturecontrol module goes above a given temperature.

Here is an example configuration :

temperatureswitch.psu.enable               true             #
temperatureswitch.psu.switch               psuswitch        #
temperatureswitch.psu.designator           F                #
temperatureswitch.psu.threshold_temp       45               #  Turn the PSU OFF above this temperature, and ON below this temperature. In °C.
switch.psuswitch.enable                            true             # turn PSU on/off
switch.psuswitch.input_on_command                  M80              #
switch.psuswitch.input_off_command                 M81              #
switch.psuswitch.output_pin                        1.22!            # 3rd small FET, or pin on header
switch.psuswitch.output_type                       digital          # on/off only
# define a readonly temperaturecontrol for a PSU cutoff
temperature_control.psu.enable             true             # Whether to activate this module at all. All configuration is ignored if false.
temperature_control.psu.thermistor_pin     0.25             # Pin for the thermistor to read
temperature_control.psu.heater_pin         nc               # set to nc to make it a read-only temperature control
temperature_control.psu.thermistor         Semitec          # thermistor name
temperature_control.psu.designator         F                # Failsafe designator

A few notes :

  • If you have a voltage regulator as your only 5V source on Smoothieboard, this will not work, as turning the PSU off will also turn the 5V off.
  • If you use an ATX PSU, you can wire the 5VSB supply to the 5V input on the Smoothieboard, in which case the Smoothieboard will still get its 5V even if the PSU is shut down by the switch module. Wire the ATX PS_ON to the ground of a small MOSFET. This will allow it to turn on/off with M80/M81, and will also shut off in case of crash.
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If you run into trouble, something doesn't work as it should, head over to the Troubleshooting page for a list of common problems and means of diagnosis.

You can also contact the Community for help if you can't find an answer in the documentation.

All software below either knows how to interface with (or how to generate g-code) for Smoothieware.

3D Printing

  • Slic3r - 3D printing slicer
  • Cura - 3D printing slicer and host.
  • Prusa Control - A beginner-friendly interface for the Slic3r engine.
  • Pronterface - 3D printing host. See the guide on the Wiki : Pronterface
  • 3Delta Printer Control - 3D printing host especially suited for delta printers.
  • OctoPrint - Awesome web interface ( Host ) for 3D printer control. On the wiki : Octoprint
  • Simplify3D - Closed source 3D printing slicer and host. On the wiki : Simplify3D
  • Fabrica - Easy to use web control interface ( Host )
  • Smoopi - Host specifically written for Smoothieware, runs on rpi with touch screen or a desktop.


  • bCNC - On the wiki: bCNC Open-Source CNC host with great preview and other operations. Set machine type to smoothie, and add Grbl_mode true to your smoothie config or even better use the firmware-cnc.bin build of smoothieware (Note: You must update to the latest version of Smoothieware to ensure compatibility with bCNC).
  • - Open-Source Simulation & Computer Aided Machining (Free 3-axis CNC Simulator which understands G-Code)
  • CNC.js - Open-Source CNC host with lots of features, running in your browser.
  • - Open-Source CAD software.
  • GCode plug-in for InkScape - CAM, Output GCode from SVG files in Inkscape.
  • PyCAM - Open-Source CAM software.
  • jscut - Open-Source in-browser CAM software.
  • CamBam - Closed-Source, but cheap and feature-full CAM software. Widely used by hobbyists. Video Tutorial
  • Fusion360 - Closed-source CAM with very advanced features, free for hobby/fablab/small business.
  • Fabrica - Easy to use web control interface ( Host )
  • Kiri:Moto by Grid.Space - Free web based toolpath generator with support for FDM, Laser Cutting and CNC Milling.
  • V-carve is compatible if using this post-processor.
  • Smoopi - Host specifically written for Smoothieware, runs on rpi with touch screen or a desktop.
  • FlatCAM - CAM software for working with PCB design milling
  • Tux Plot - A free general use CNC tool for small businesses
  • Candle - Open-Source Gcode sender for CNC mills, designed for GRBL but should work fine with Smoothie in grbl mode
  • Universal G-code Sender - Set machine type to Smoothieware, and add Grbl_mode true to your smoothie config or even better use the firmware-cnc.bin build of smoothieware (Note: You must update to the latest version of Smoothieware to ensure compatibility with UGS).


  • GCode plug-in for InkScape - Laser/CNC CAM : Output GCode from SVG files in Inkscape. Video tutorial.
  • Visicut - Full laser control application ( Host and CAM ), has Smoothieware interface. Video tutorial.
  • LaserWeb - Web-based full laser control application ( Host and CAM ), use to generate GCode but not recommended to use as a streamer of rasters as they do not support streaming the smoothie way.
  • Fabrica - Easy to use control interface ( Host )
  • V-carve is compatible if using this post-processor.
  • Fast streamer - use for streaming raster images from a host to smoothie. Avoids the pauses when using LW to stream. Can handle upwards of 1,000 pixels/sec.
  • Smoopi - Host specifically written for Smoothieware, runs on rpi with touch screen or a desktop.
  • Lightburn - LightBurn is layout, editing, and control software for your laser cutter..
  • LaserGRBL - For laser engraving and cutting, particularly advanced for engraving
  • Polygonia - A tool to easily create repeating patterns for laser cutting : Online tool


  • This plugin for Fusion360 allows you to start your Gcode files from within Fusion360 directly using Universal Gcode Sender ( skipping the step of first saving the file in Fusion360, then opening it in Universal Gcode Sender )


A few words you will see in this documentation that require a bit of explanation :
  • «Host» software is software that is used to “talk” to your Smoothieboard. It allows you to control the machine ( for example “jog” the axes ), to “stream” a G-code job, or to upload it to the SD card, things like that.
  • «Slicing» software is software that is used to take a 3D model file, and based on some settings you input, “slice” it into layers, and generate a G-code file that the Smoothieboard can then execute to print a thing.
  • «CAM» software, or «CAM Package», for Computer Assisted Manufacturing, is software that is used to take a 3D or 3D file, and based on some settings you input, transform it into a list of tool movements ( G-code file ) for a machine that uses a tool to remove material from a workpiece.
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